One of the most frequent complaints that doctors hear from patients is pain in the knees. What caused it, you can't always tell immediately, because my knees can suffer from various diseases, one of which is osteoarthritis of the knee. It is also known as gonarthrosis, and represents the defeat of the joint, which is usually non-inflammatory in nature and contributes to the destruction of cartilage, bone deformities and restriction of movements of the patient.
There are two main forms of the disease:
- primary. Appears due to improper development of joints at birth;
- secondary. Appears as a consequence of other diseases or injuries.
The primary form usually develops from childhood and is caused by incorrect formation of ligaments or joints. They during physical activity are subjected to heavy loads and deform.
The secondary form of the disease caused by the following factors:
- injuries (bruises, sprains, dislocations, fractures), which contribute to the disruption of the structure of bones, ligaments, cartilage. This causes post-traumatic forms of the disease;
- the transfer of operations to remove the meniscus that harm the structural integrity of his knee.
- too high load on the legs (typical for athletes);
- excess weight as it provokes a lot of pressure of body weight on cartilage of knee joints;
- arthritis (inflammation in joints). Prolonged illness accompanied by the formation of excessive liquid in the cavity, which is the cause complications;
- the dysfunction of metabolism, which is the cause of salt deposits;
- various surgeries on the knee;
- diseases, which are characterized by long muscle spasms of the leg muscles or blood vessels.
The development of the disease can take unilateral or bilateral form. The injury is likely to be the reason for unilateral osteoarthritis, and obesity will provoke bilateral.
The symptoms of the disease
Knee osteoarthritis symptoms showing gradually. Patient years could not know that he is sick, as a visible change in the shape of the knee or severe pain it does not. The arthrosis of the knee joint of 1 degree is often accompanied by unpleasant and painful sensations in the knees, but few at this stage refers to the doctor. More prone to this disease women after the age of 40 who suffer from excess weight. Mainly contributes to the development of this disease, the presence of varicose veins. At this stage it is possible to cure the disease at home even without the use of drugs and ointments.
Pain in the disease are sudden, and come gradually, sometimes over several years. They occur during sport, walking and other physical activities. This sharp pain may be a symptom of osteoarthritis, but is a consequence of the fracture, entrapment of the meniscus or injury. If the patient feels severe discomfort it is most certainly a knee 2 degrees. To avoid pain, a person tends to spend more time in a stationary state, but after the resumption of physical activity the discomfort still returns.
Symptoms such as deformation, accompanied by deforming arthrosis of the knee joint. It becomes noticeable on the second or third stages of the disease. Her first symptoms: knee is slightly swollen, but keeps its shape. In the last stages there is a change in its shape that may even make one leg shorter or longer. Sick should be drinking such drugs as hondroprotektory (contribute to the regeneration of cartilage tissue).
Synovitis (accumulation in the articular cavity fluid) also indicates the progression of the disease. If the liquid is too much, it may be the so-called Baker's cyst – a tumor on the glenoid side of the joint. Elastic cyst becomes noticeable when the knee unbent. Easily treated and cured with medical intervention.
One of the most characteristic symptoms is the crunch, which is noticeable when the disease at stages 2 and 3. The main thing – to distinguish the ringing crunch of the joints of a healthy person and a dull, dry crunch of the patient. It causes weakness of ligaments or their high mobility. To provide rest to the joints, the patient is recommended to wear knee braces for osteoarthritis.
The limited mobility of the knee is manifested in the later stages of the disease. In this case the patient can not fully straighten or bend the leg, as it causes severe pain. If the disease has progressed to stage 3, the knee can be completely real, due to fusion of the joints. This condition requires the use of injections, ointments or other products and preparations, relieving pain, and also the intervention of the surgeons, because regular massage or folk remedies are powerless against the fused bones.
Stage of gonarthrosis
There are three stages of osteoarthritis:
- from the moment you start the first stage before visible symptoms of the disease months or years. A person complains of pain in the legs that occur periodically. This is especially true of the first steps of the stairs up or down, and when getting out of bed in the morning. The pictures may show narrowing of the interarticular gap. Usually, instead of going to a specialist, patients are often used in folk ointments, tinctures and preparations;
- the second stage is characterized by more severe pain that can't be stopped even in the resting state of the limbs. Accompanied by the crunch. In the joint cavity can accumulate fluid and x-rays show the beginning of the deformation and expansion of the bones. The patient in this phase strongly limits the number of movements of the affected limb. To reduce discomfort, the specialist can prescribe the injections and receiving chondroprotectors;
- at last, the third stage, the pain becomes constant and is often worse during change of weather conditions. X-ray shows significant deformation of the knee, which can be eliminated only by surgery, the patient should drink a complex of chondroprotectors. The patient's changing gait: deforming arthrosis of the knee joint contributes to the walk or on slightly bent legs, or waddle.
The treatment of the disease
Treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee depends on the severity of the disease of the knees. The chronic nature of the pathology will help to come only to the remission phase (when the active manifestations of the disease are minimized or do not exist). Physiotherapy treatment combined with the use of drugs, in particular, chondroprotectors, gives positive results.
Treatment goals are:
- reduce the pain;
- restored using various means of cartilage and ligaments;
- the increase in movements in the limbs.
Among the methods of treatment are:
- the use of drugs (chondroprotectors);
- surgery doctors;
- rehabilitation center (physical therapy, physical therapy, massage and other means).
The drug, also known as chondro, true will be able to choose a doctor. Them it is categorically forbidden to assign to themselves, as chondroprotectors are themselves quite powerful medicines.
All appointed med. the products are aimed to:
- removing pain and inflammation. For this purpose, the cavity of the joint are the hormonal and non-hormonal drugs type;
- improving the supply of blood to sore feet. For this there are drugs that can relieve spasms of blood vessels or muscle;
- the healing of cartilage tissue. Developed special products – all kinds of chondroprotectors, distinguished by the impact on the affected joint. They have the necessary nutrients the cartilage tissue. Chondroprotectors are also able to help the body create new cartilage.
Drugs produced in the form of ointments, injections and other means.
In addition, a popular cure is the massage for osteoarthritis of the knee joint. Properly performed by a doctor, massage with ointment, allows you to relax permanently tight muscles near the affected disease of the knee, which reduces pain (works better than injections). Massage with the ointment helps to increase the number of movements performed by the legs, fix the position of the bones even at home to increase flow. If pathology has moved to the third stage, the usual ointment or an injection will not help, and requires surgical intervention. The doctor implants the patient a metal prosthesis, which is intended to replace the non-functioning leg. Such implants need to be changed every few years, and the surgery itself is quite expensive.
Recreation complex includes exercises for osteoarthritis of the knee that the patient will have to perform under the strict supervision of your doctor. These exercises are intended:
- to improve blood circulation;
- improve muscle tone at home. For example, kinesitherapy involves studies of patients on special simulators.
In addition, popular are the methods of physiotherapy (UHF and ultrasonic therapy, phototherapy), which, although are not essential, but greatly help to speed up the healing process. Treatment of osteoarthritis of knee joint by physical therapy is effective as reduces pain. Specific methods of physiotherapy depending on the extent of the disease determined by the physician. In addition, the rehabilitation includes injections that reduce pain, assisted ointment, etc.
Exercises for osteoarthritis of the knee is one of the main methods that allow you to develop atrophied muscles. Physical therapy for osteoarthritis of the knee joint should be done carefully, slowly. If the patient feels the resumption of pain, is time to stop training. During exercise convenient and useful to use special knee braces for osteoarthritis.
In the rehabilitation group also includes therapeutic methods of orthopedic type. They set a goal for ourselves to reduce the load on the knee, gradually shifting her cane, dentures. Many specialists prescribe knee braces for osteoarthritis. This will help the patient to facilitate the walking, making it minimally painful.
As for special diet for osteoarthritis, it is usually often aimed at reducing the weight of the patient, as in the majority of cases it is a lot of weight overloading of the joints. The diet involves eating small portions every 3 hours. For weight loss in daily diet you should add lean meat (chicken, Turkey, rabbit) and eliminating fat (lamb, pork). Vegetable proteins should come from legumes. For diet in the diet should be a substitute for refined crude oil, and also decrease salt intake.
Medical diet involves the failure or the minimal consumption of canned, smoked and fried foods (appetite suppressant). In order to restore destroyed cartilage, it is necessary to provide the body with complex carbohydrates (cereals, products made from wheat flour). In nutrition should also be included juices (carrot, beet, Apple). They will withdraw toxins from the body and will reduce the impact of inflammatory processes.
The diet should include fish and jelly that acts as a kind of cartilage and helps create new cartilage. It is worth remembering that diet cannot assign themselves the best variant will be able to choose only a dietitian (a specialist in diets).
Special attention should be paid to traditional methods of fight against disease (treatment in home). A lot of ointments, compresses, and other popular liqueurs that offer healers and lovers of folk medicine based on herbs, health of the bile that improves the blood circulation in the diseased joint. The effect of the ointment is aimed at improving blood circulation, muscle relaxation. With this tool often do packs. Their efficiency is very high, so this method is sometimes used by doctors and in traditional medicine (in combination with drugs). The compresses should be put on the bandages of wool, which warms the sore spot. Of course, folk remedies hardly can greatly help with osteoarthritis 3 degrees, but the additional healing properties of folk methods should not be neglected, because they relieve discomfort and eliminate the main symptoms of the disease.
Among the most popular recipes of folk remedies that can be applied at home, there are:
- a poultice of horseradish. According to this folk recipe, to enhance the therapeutic properties of horseradish, it is recommended to pre-grind and boil. Then it needs to be applied to the affected area;
- the application of iodine, medical bile, ammonia, glycerine and honey may. All the ingredients of this popular mix to mix, infuse for 10 days, and then apply to sore knees. This medicine is very effectively;
- cold compress of cabbage leaf. It is made from fresh leaves of cabbage soaked in may with honey, and applied to the leg. Reinforces the therapeutic effect of the insulation of wool fabric or plastic film. This remedy is suitable for people of all age groups;
- ointment of elecampane with vodka.
Osteoarthritis of the knee has quite a variety of treatment a patient will choose doctors into consideration the age and physiological features. It can be shots, creams, knee braces for osteoarthritis and other medications. For the prevention and control of disease in the early stages can be used physical therapy for osteoarthritis of the knee joint. With proper and timely treatment, people can save money and not to cause much harm.